In the early Meiji period (1868–1880s), Fukuzawa Yukichi authored Enlightenment literature, while pre-modern popular books depicted the quickly changing country.  Teiji Ichiko [ja], in his article on medieval literature for the Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten, calls this the final flowering of the aristocratic literature, noting its high literary value with its basis in the literary ideals of yūgen and yūshin, its emphasis on suggestiveness, and its exquisite delicacy. Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan - Ebook written by Eiji Yoshikawa. Classical court literature, which had been the focal point of Japanese literature up until this point, gradually disappeared. , The foundations for this style of poetry were laid by Teika and his father Shunzei, not just in their poetry but in their highly regarded works of poetic theory (karon and kagaku-sho). Other important tales of the period include Kamo no Chōmei's Hōjōki (1212) and Yoshida Kenkō's Tsurezuregusa (1331).  These songs were composed with the goal of educating people about Buddhism, and were widely recited around the country.  Furthermore, it was during this period that the classical Japanese literary tradition ceased to be the exclusive prerogative of the aristocracy, and passed into the hands of scholarly-minded warriors and hermits.  It is also noteworthy for its simple, direct language, which was a new innovation of this period. Haruo Umezaki's short story "Sakurajima" shows a disillusioned and skeptical Navy officer stationed in a base located on the Sakurajima volcanic island, close to Kagoshima, on the southern tip of the Kyushu island.  It is written in a highly Sinicized wakan konkō-bun, and lacks the lyricism of The Tale of the Heike, being apparently meant more as a work to be read than sung to an audience.  Sōgi, who was active from roughly the time of the Ōnin War, built on these developments and helped renga to reach its highest point. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.  As a result, they cover a much broader range of topics, and were written not only by nobles but by warriors, monks, hermits and urbanites.  Kaidōki and Tōkan Kikō were written by highly educated men in wakan konkō-bun. , Works of courtly fiction, or monogatari (literally "tales"), continued to be produced by the aristocracy from the Heian period into the Kamakura period, with the early Kamakura work Mumyō-zōshi, written by a devout fan of monogatari, particularly The Tale of Genji, emphasizing literary criticism and discussing various monogatari, as well as waka anthologies and other works by the court ladies.  This work is noted as a forerunner to the literature of the early modern period.  These three recounted, in order, the three major conflicts that led to the rise of the warrior class at the end of the Heian period. , This flourishing was characteristic of the first three or four decades of the Kamakura period, but following the Jōkyū rebellion and the exile of Go-Toba, the great patron of waka, the genre went into decline.  The latter half of this work, titled "Accounts I Have Heard in an Uncaring World" (心ならざる世中の聞書 Kokoro narazaru yononaka no bunsho), collects some 23 short stories. , The most important waka poets of this period were not courtiers but monks, hermits, and warriors. Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, who was highly praised by Soseki, wrote short stories including "Rashōmon" (1915) with an intellectual and analytic attitude and represented Neo-realism in the mid-1910s. , Closely related to noh, and performed alongside it, was kyōgen (also called noh-kyōgen).  The former describes its author's journey toward giving up the world, social changes, and celebrates recluse life, while the latter is a work of instruction detailing its author's inner thoughts and feelings as he lives in quiet seclusion.  This period, based on the centres of political power, is normally divided into the Kamakura, Nanbokuchō (or Yoshino), Muromachi and Azuchi–Momoyama periods, and is also referred to simply as the Kamakura-Muromachi period.  The Shintō-shū contains 50 stories, mostly honji suijaku-based works describing the origins of the gods of Shintō. Saneatsu Mushanokōji, Naoya Shiga and others founded a magazine Shirakaba in 1910.  There is a focus in the work on the Kantō region, and on divinities with the title myōjin, and it contains several setsuwa-type works, such as "The Tale of the Kumano Incarnation" (熊野権現事 Kumano-gongen no koto) and "The Tale of the Mishima Grand Divinity" (三島大明神事 Mishima-daimyōjin no koto) in the vein of setsuwa-jōruri and otogi-zōshi.  From the Heian period on, entertainments such as sangaku, dengaku and sarugaku had been popular among the common people, while temples hosted music and dance rituals, namely fūryū [ja] and ennen. .  It was the last of the "mirrors" (鏡物 kagami-mono) of Japanese history, and portrays the history, primarily of the imperial family, of the period between the emperors Go-Toba and Go-Daigo. In medieval Japan — the Kamakura Period to the Muromachi Period (1193-1573) — power shifted from the nobility to the warrior class. Ozaki Kōyō, Kyōka Izumi, and Ichiyo Higuchi represent a strain of writers whose style hearkens back to early-Modern Japanese literature. ... Students will analyze art and literature from the Heian Period to better understand the cultural achievements of the imperial court. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion  A great many travel diaries by renga masters who travelled the country during this time of war, from Tsukushi no Michi no Ki (筑紫道) by Sōgi onward, also survive.  Some warriors of the armies sweeping the country toward the end of the medieval period also left travel journals, including those of Hosokawa Yūsai and Kinoshita Chōshōshi [ja].  Deep and serious literature was combined with light and humorous elements, which is a noteworthy characteristic of late medieval literature. , Late Kamakura works of courtly fiction include Koiji Yukashiki Taishō [ja], Sayo-goromo [ja] and Hyōbu-kyō Monogatari [ja], and these works in particular show a very strong influence from earlier works, in particular The Tale of Genji, in terms of structure and language. Kyokutei Bakin (1767–1848) wrote the extremely popular fantasy/historical romance Nansō Satomi Hakkenden over a period of twenty-eight years to complete (1814–1842), in addition to other yomihon. Shōhei Ōoka won the Yomiuri Prize for his novel Fires on the Plain about a Japanese deserter going mad in the Philippine jungle. Japan's Literature and Drama.  Notable examples of travel diaries include Fuji kikō (1432) and Tsukushi michi no ki (1480).. . One of the stories they describe is the tale of Urashima Tarō. Akitsushima Monogatari (秋津島物語) attempted to recount events before Jinmu, in the age of the gods.  Among those about members of the warrior class, some (such as Shutendōji) drew upon gunki monogatari and heroic legends of monster-slayers, some (such as Onzōshi Shima-watari) built legends of warriors, and others (such as Muramachi Monogatari and Akimichi) told of chaos between rival houses and revenge.  They portrayed strong characters proactively and forcefully, in a manner that Ichiko describes as appropriate for the age of the warrior class's ascendancy.  Well over a hundred monogatari appear to have been in circulation at this time, but almost all are lost. , This is the point when "ancient" literature came to an end and was replaced with literature more representative of the early modern period.  At both the palace and the homes of various aristocrats, poetry gatherings (uta-kai) and competitions (uta-awase) such as the famous Roppyaku-ban Uta-awase [ja] and Sengohyaku-ban Uta-awase [ja] were held, with numerous great poets coming to the fore. One new genre of that emerged in this period was the gunki monogatari, or war tale, of which the representative example of The Tale of the Heike, a dramatic retelling of the events of the wars between the Minamoto and Taira clans. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Taiko: An Epic Novel of War and Glory in Feudal Japan. The feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimy ... specialized in Japanese domestic history and literature, influencing the rise of kokugaku, and the Igakukan (医学間, "Institute of medecine"), focusing on Chinese medicine.  The Soga Monogatari, which was composed toward the end of this period, placed its focus on heroic figures, and laid the foundations for the gunki monogatari of the Muromachi period. , Kōwakamai developed somewhat later than noh. The finest example is Kojiki which his thought to be written by O no Yasumaro in the early 8th century. Later, in the Meiji era, earlier works written by women such as Murasaki Shikibu and Sei Shonagon were championed amongst the earliest examples of the Japanese literary language, even at a time when the authors themselves experienced challenges due to their gender. Product description Review "Spectacular, captivating, and transporting." Strikingly, Buddhist attitudes about the importance of knowing oneself and the poignant impermanence of things formed an undercurrent to sharp social criticism of this material age. He made his life's work the transformation of haikai into a literary genre.  Keene calls the latter two "masters of Chinese poetry", describing Zekkai as "the greatest of the Five Mountains poets". Japanese literature is typically divided into four periods: Ancient Literature (until 794) The earliest Japanese literary works date to the 8th century and mostly deal with Japanese legends and myths.  These works combined poetry describing the recluse life in thatched-hut retreats with magnificent essays called zuihitsu.  The Tenshōki (天正記), a collective name for the works Ōmura Yūko [ja], records the exploits of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.  At some time around the Nanbokuchō period this genre split off from mainstream noh, and it became customary for a kyōgen performance to be put on between two noh plays.  The Shin'yō Wakashū, a quasi-chokusenshū compiled by Prince Munenaga, collects the works of the emperors and retainers of the Southern Court.  Noh and its comic counterpart kyōgen is the standard example of this phenomenon, but renga had haikai, waka had its kyōka and kanshi (poetry in Classical Chinese) had its kyōshi. Many popular works fell between "pure literature" and pulp novels, including all sorts of historical serials, information-packed docudramas, science fiction, mysteries, detective fiction, business stories, war journals, and animal stories. , The gunki monogatari emerged in the early medieval era as a form of popular entertainment, with the most important early works being the Hōgen Monogatari, the Heiji Monogatari, and The Tale of the Heike. , Linked verse, or renga, took the place of waka as the dominant poetic form during this period.  With the shogunate, who were of warrior stock, controlling the affairs of state in eastern Japan, the aristocracy of the Heian court continued to perform limited court functions and attempted to preserve their aristocratic literary traditions. Kyoto ceased being the sole literary centre as important writers and readerships appeared throughout the country, and a wider variety of genres and literary forms developed accordingly, such as the gunki monogatari and otogi-zōshi prose narratives, and renga linked verse, as well as various theatrical forms such as  More than 500 were written, and many come down to us in manuscript copies that include beautiful coloured illustrations. , Medieval Japanese literature is most often associated with members of the warrior class, religious figures and hermits (隠者 inja), but the nobility maintained a degree of their former prestige and occupied an important position in literary circles. During the late 16th century, Christian missionaries and their Japanese converts produced the first Japanese translations of European works. Folk songs and religious and secular tales were collects in a number of anthologies, and travel literature, which had been growing in popularity throughout the medieval period, became more and more commonplace. For Bashō, haikai involved a combination of comic playfulness and spiritual depth, ascetic practice, and involvement in human society.  Kokan's Genkō Shakusho is an important work of this period.  Ryūben Hōin Saijōki (隆弁法印西上記) recounts the Tsurugaoka Hachimangū bettō Ryūben [ja]'s journey to Onjō-ji and the time he spent there.  Buddhist songs were performed as part of ennen [ja], etc., and of particular note is the wasan form.  Isoho Monogatari, because it was seen as a secular collection of moral fables, managed to survive the anti-Christian proscriptions of Tokugawa period, continuing to be printed in Japan until at least 1659, with several handwritten copies also surviving. , Literature characterized by wabi-sabi was valued during this period of chaotic warfare. Manga (comics) has penetrated almost every sector of the popular market. Show students PowerPoint slides of various feudal castles in Japan ... By the late 1100s, Heian was the great center of Japanese art and literature.  His genre-defying, humorous and surreal works have sparked fierce debates in Japan over whether they are true "literature" or simple pop-fiction: Kenzaburō Ōe has been one of his harshest critics. Natsume Sōseki, who is often compared with Mori Ōgai, wrote I Am a Cat (1905) with humor and satire, then depicted fresh and pure youth in Botchan (1906) and Sanshirô (1908). Although the "Tales of the Otori" books are set in a place fairly closely resembling feudal Japan, they are actually set in a fictional island nation, not any real place in Japan. 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